Antimicrobial drug sensitivity testing essay

This would apply to telephone consultations as well as internet-based prescribing. There may well be an ethical responsibility to challenge prescribers over their management of private vs.

antibiotic resistance in bacteria

What if I were to tell you that antibiotics could be the reason for more sickness, would you believe me? Pathogens are microscopic, which means that the immediate outcome of unhygienic practices can only be surmised rather than proven.

Antibiotic resistance research essay

Since drug resistance is not confined to one region of the world, antimicrobial provision and management should generate discussion and policy on a global basis Dancer, b. Arguments for implementing or improving diagnostic provision are dependent upon published evidence, which, in company with infection prevention strategies, is virtually non-existent. Though fighting against superbugs; which can be defined as a strain of bacteria unable to be killed using multiple antibiotics, is now a large problem, in the past it was not. This is approached as a predominantly scientific problem in most hospitals, with guidelines on antibiotic choices balanced against diagnosis, concurrent therapy, toxicity, allergies, and length of course. Antibiotics are a shared global resource and clinicians, patients, public health, and government are bound together by the need to protect these drugs from misuse Spellberg et al. Indeed, setting up a double blind randomized clinical trial on exposure to fresh air, for example, would pose considerable challenge, despite nursing patients with tuberculosis outdoors just a few decades ago. The time may come when penicillin can be bought by anyone in the shops. Others demand antimicrobial drugs for infected pets, whether or not they are reserved for humans. Then there is the danger that the ignorant man may easily under dose himself and by exposing his microbes to non-lethal quantities of the drug make them resistant. Due to a lack of standardization of these factors, interpretation of the Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion assay provides only limited information on susceptibility and resistance to the drugs tested.

This is where an established drug is compared against a more recent version for a specific indication, in this case, skin infection, but without the facility to measure any new benefits Outterson et al. Restricting antibiotics to benefit one stakeholder will almost certainly affect the same or a different stakeholder further down the line Dancer, A related issue operates at local level, whereby some institutions advise prescribers to choose cheaper options, even if these are therapeutically suspect.

Nowadays, antibiotic resistant bacteria have become increasingly more common causing the death of thousands of people around the world. If a student does not receive basic education on microbiology, infection control and appropriate prescribing, or understand why these are important, then future stewardship initiatives will not achieve ownership Owens et al.

Antibiotic resistance statistics

The first commercialized antibiotic was Penicillin in So, sufficiently detailed knowledge about multidrug-resistant MDR bacteria quantitative understanding of the dynamics , and multiple resistance determinants in variable host humans and animals and different environmental compartments, is required to make useful predictions and designing regulatory measures at national as well as international levels. While there may be a strong moral argument to choose unusual or second-line drugs, a prescriber could be placed at risk of penalty unless relevant and timely confirmation is received from the diagnostic laboratory. With the rapid development of infectious disease associated with antibiotic resistance forced us to change the way we view disease and the way we treat patients. All hospital staff interacting with her were advised to follow strict protocols to prevent surface and equipment contamination. The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author s or licensor are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. All clinical and managerial leaders should become, and remain, committed to controlling AMR in order to understand and address the barriers to change. An important but largely unstated issue in ethical guidance is to consider any possible alternatives, or what the trade-offs from different choices may be; thus, there are such arguments for and against stewardship initiatives. There is evidence from the consumption rates in hospitals and community to demonstrate that antibiotics are still being overprescribed, and these data do not include over-the-counter or internet sources Millar, Ultimately, responsibilities for infection control fall to everyone, whether they are healthcare staff or not. Those joining this online community would commit to a clickwrap license not to take from the research commons, nor to privatize the product of their work So and Shah, There are further ethical considerations over the distribution of antimicrobial agents. While these organizations have ethical responsibility to define and support antimicrobial stewardship, there have not been any mandates issued on antimicrobial prescribing. When compared with other drugs, antimicrobial agents have both a higher success rate of US Food and Drug Administration FDA drug approval and a shorter approval time, although it is true to say that recent drugs have usually evolved from pre-existing antimicrobial classes.

If bacteria develop resistance within a food animal, then resistant strains spread throughout the farm, colonize other livestock and persist in the environment. A septic patient should receive best guess empirical therapy; without condemnation of either prescriber or recipient.

how to solve antibiotic resistance

Contractual cleaning specifications are a lot easier to implement than activities that rely upon behavioral decisions, i. Indeed, is it morally acceptable to prescribe an agent to a patient in order to comply with local regulations, when there is another drug that might be more effective, or quicker, or with fewer adverse affects?

Therapeutic use of antimicrobial agents in veterinary medicine is another important issue Catry et al.

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How to solve a problem like antibiotic resistance